Friday, March 27, 2015

Vacheron Constantin Métiers D’art Savoirs Enluminés

With its highly artistic watch collection Savoirs Enluminés, a 60-piece limited series, Vacheron Constantin takes us on a voyage of discovery to the very heart of the Middle Ages, of illuminated manuscripts and the transmission of knowledge. Savoirs Enluminés is an exceptional collection that highlights watchmaking expertise, notably due to the original hour display on its ultra-thin self-winding calibre, as well asgreat mastery of the decorative arts.

The new Métiers d’Art Savoirs Enluminés collection draws aesthetic inspiration from the Aberdeen Bestiary, an ancient Celtic manuscript recovered from the Middle Ages that is internationally recognised for the quality of its miniaturized illuminations. The art of miniaturisation, designed to emphatically celebrate a sizeable body of handwritten literature, is a complex technique requiring extensive collaboration between scribes, painters and gilders in the creation of veritable works of art.

Its natural affinities with the world of watchmaking are particularly apparent in the new Métiers d’Art Savoirs Enluminés collection. Over and above the exceptional beauty of the Aberdeen Bestiary, Vacheron Constantin pays tribute to the transmission of knowledge that these manuscripts symbolize. An adventure that leads us to encounter a veritable legend, all too rarely revealed to the public, and yet almost universally shared by Eastern and Western cultures.
Aside from the exceptional aesthetic aspects of the Métiers d’Art Savoirs Enluminés timepieces, the collection also offers a patented mechanism featuring a dragging (or trailing) hour display. Combined with the delicate craft of Grand Feu enamel, which includes the Genevan technique of miniature painting, this limited edition timepiece collection contains is truly exceptional.

The Aberdeen Bestiary was commissioned in the 12th century. This “book of beasts”, conveying a wide range of knowledge and beliefs, is filled with information that is key to understanding the evolution of humankind while exalting the power of metaphor. In the Middle Ages, this rhetorical procedure was very common and the symbolic role of the animal was credited with human feelings and character traits. The animal did not exist for what it was, but rather to represent the wonders of Creation. It taught knowledge, but above all transmitted moral precepts. Animals were variously used to convey dreams, conquests or power, and regularly appeared in fables and satirical novels. The art of illustration was an integral part of this educational vocation. The creatures represented in a figurative painting style with great colour intensity and highly detailed drawings often feature fantastical attributes resulting in a strikingly modern graphic appearance

The extremely high-quality illuminations in the Aberdeen Bestiary are painted on a gold background, barely burnished by time. They reveal colours, mainly blues and pinks and which remain extremely intense, with white having been used to accentuate the curves and shapes of the bodies. The artists required enormous imagination to draw these incredible animals that they had never seen.

Over and above their undeniable cultural value, the miniatures found in the Aberdeen Bestiary are a perfect example of a combination of talent. The illuminator and the gilder succeeded in perfectly matching their actions on the 103 folios of which the work consists. Like watchmaking, the manuscripts of the era passed through the hands of several master craftsmen and, step by step, each artisan made an essential contribution to the composition. On a parchment prepared by hand, the copyist monks hand inscribed the body of the text, leaving space with indications regarding the application of the gilding and the illuminations intended to structure the body of the text. Following this, the gilder applied the gold leaf. Finally the illuminator created his miniature directly on the fine layer of gold including the sketch, mixing of natural pigments and colouring by layer – an art requiring both coordination and precision.

Similarly, the Métiers d’Art Savoirs Enluminés collection contributes to perpetuating this mind-set through timepieces that embody Art born of the collaboration between master craftsmen.

Marrying original watchmaking techniques and skilled artistic crafts in the Métiers d’Art Savoirs Enluminés collection, Vacheron Constantin pays homage to the art of miniature through superb enamelled reinterpretations. Ancient illuminators worked according to standards that are identical to those of enamellers, with the same actions that imbue a precious object with an emotional language that is both manifold and universal. To achieve a piece that emanates true intensity, the artisans must first perfectly understand the possibilities and constraints of each technique. Their inspiration is nourished by influences and experiences. Only in this way will they be able to give the best of themselves and offer true authenticity.

The Métiers d’Art Savoirs Enluminés collection comprises three 20-piece limited edition timepieces, each illustrated with an animal from the Aberdeen Bestiary.

The first of this trio is the “Altion”, a beautiful seabird linked to water, building its nest on the seas, no matter what the weather, and symbolising serenity (an extract from folio 54v). The care given to its blue green plumage, the elegance of its wings and the flexibility of its posture perfectly fit the circular shape of the dial.
The second model, “Vultures”, is adorned with two fowl back to back – the quintessential ambassadors of the Skies, casting a knowing glance (extract from folio 44v). Against a graded pink background, their bodies form a circle, the symbol of infinity and longevity.
The third model, “Caper” – is devoted to the Earth (extract from folio 14r). It presents a midnight blue goat with a piercing gaze, and endowed with exceptionally sound judgement.
These three creatures are illustrated in a representation that is extremely true to the original Illuminations. Each project involves its own set of considerations, as well as surprises and wonders. In these models, Vacheron Constantin has chosen to call on traditional decorative techniques: the art of Grand Feu enamel reminiscent of illumination, engraving as a nod to calligraphy, along with a delicate phase of shadowing and gold texturization in order to create the effect of gold leaf.
Every gesture made by the craftsman who worked on Savoirs Enluminés is part of a smoothly continuous sequence and each is dependent on the other. The end result remains unpredictable right up to the final touch, the casing-up. The complexity of these timepieces can be seen at first glance through a twin-level 22-carat gold dial. The upper element, bordered by a frieze, has a fantastic creature in its centre. Adorned with Grand Feu enamel, the upper dial perfectly marries miniature and champlevé techniques. The task of enamelling is long and labour-intensive, with colours applied through a microscope, one after the other, before several stages in the kiln, while remaining as true to the original as possible. In the background, the enamelled gold background is magnificently textured by hand with the help of fine brushes and erasers in order to emulate the gold leaf effect as closely as possible. And, as is always the case, the unexpected can occur at any time, and enamel remains a fragile, capricious art, but the luminous result is there for all to admire.
The dial’s upper level opens on the right, revealing the lower part. There are traces of a Latin text from the Aberdeen Bestiary manuscript. This is a tribute to the creative power of Nature (Natura) and Life (Vita). This miniscule piece of gold is structured over three levels of detail, none of which are thicker than 0.9 mm. The raised, polished letters contrast with the finely grained background, while the Arabic numerals on the chapter ring, arranged in a semi-circle, are delicately painted on the upper surface. Finally, between these two levels on the dial, the hour numbers slide from top to bottom, in turn, in 60 minutes. The light reveals a subtly balanced association of matt and polished finishes. This exemplifies truly outstanding craftsmanship in the domain of miniaturisation.
An equally fabulous mechanism on which hours glide by much as the eye glides over a page Savoirs Enluminés’ astonishing dial display is made possible by an exclusive mechanism: self-winding Caliber 1120 AT, built an ultra-thin base movement. Developed and crafted by Vacheron Constantin entirely in keeping with the traditions of haute horlogerie, it meets the Hallmark of Geneva criteria that are no longer confined to the movement alone, but also take into account the complete watch.
It beats at a frequency of 2.75 Hz (19,800 vibrations/hour) and has an approximately 40-hour power reserve. Its finishing and its construction testify to fine workmanship taken to extremes. Not only are the main flat movement surfaces adorned with a meticulous Côtes de Genève pattern, but all their sharp angles are also finely chamfered and hand-polished. The same applies to the screw heads. The dragging or trailing display was designed and developed by the Vacheron Constantin engineers. The three spokes of the hour’s wheel are prolonged by a carousel. Each bears four hours numerals, whose direction is determined by a cam shaped like a Maltese Cross – a patented mechanism echoing the brand emblem.
The hours crown (wheel) turns in such a way as to successively place the carousel bearing the appropriate numeral opposite the corresponding minutes painted on the lower dial. The hour slides gradually downwards, before vanishing after crossing the 60-minute mark. It thus makes way for the numeral of the following hour. In this airy display, time seems to glide across this work just as the eye glides across the page of a book. The effect is evocative, unexpected, and gently poetic.

This successful demonstration of Vacheron Constantin’s mechanical genius is protected by a broad 18-carat gold shaped case. The name of the animal portrayed on the dial is faithfully engraved along the side exactly accordance with the original script. Finally, the transparent case-back is protected by a sapphire crystal affording a chance to admire the qualities of the self-winding movement, as well as its gold oscillating weight with a tapestry-like motif.
The latter is a stylised depiction of the neogothic architecture of the arches on the Crown Tower of King’s College, Aberdeen University. The tapestry work, a decorative style inspired by guilloché (engine turning) is made using an over century-old tool operating according to the same principle as the pantograph. This technique requires extremely fine adjustment and must be adapted to each new oscillating weight, while providing a magnificent opportunity to create raised and hollowed areas measuring barely a tenth of-a-millimetre and resembling embroidery work.

Technical details
Collection: Métiers d’Art Savoirs Enluminés
Hallmark of Geneva certified timepieces
Only available in Vacheron Constantin Boutiques

7000S/000G-B001 - Vultures
7000S/000G-B002 - Caper
7000S/000G-B003 - Altion

Caliber 1120 AT
Developed and manufactured by Vacheron Constantin
Mechanical self-winding, with dragging hours additional mechanism
32.80 mm (12’’’½) diameter
5.45 mm thick
Approximately 40 hours of power reserve
2.75 Hz (19’800 vibrations/hour)
205 components
36 jewels

Hours, minutes
Time indicated by Arabic numerals mounted on satellite-wheels
The hours move one after the other across a 120° scale located on the lower dial

18K white gold
40 x 49.45 mm, 10.30 mm thick
Transparent sapphire crystal caseback
Water-resistance tested at a pressure of 3 bar (approx. 30 meters)
Name of the inspiration model engraved on caseband

Two-level dial:
- Upper dial: hand-textured champlevé gold base with Grand Feu miniature enamelling
- Lower dial: polished letters in relief on a grained gold base

Brown Mississippiensis alligator leather strap, hand-stitched, saddlefinish, large square scales
Buckle: 18K white gold triple blade folding clasp
Polished half Maltese cross-shaped

Delivered with a magnifying glass, a pair of gloves and a dedicated brochure to better showcase the craftsmanship and technicality behind these creations

Limited edition of 20 pieces for each model
« N°X/20 » engraved on the back of each timepiece

Note: Latin text from the Aberdeen Bestiary (folios 80 & 81) adorning the lower dial - “Natura dicta eo quod nasci aliquid faciat, gignendi enim et faciendi potens est. Vita dicta propter vigo rem vel quod vim teneat nascendi atque crescendo” (English translation - Nature, natura, is so called because it brings a thing to birth, nasci for it has the power to beget and to form. Life, vita, is so called from vigor, 'active power', because it has within it the force of birth and growth.)

The Aberdeen Bestiary
The Aberdeen Bestiary was initially listed in 1542, during an inventory of the Old Royal Library in Westminster Palace. It was however written and illuminated long before, in around 1200. Aside from the beauty of its illuminations, it reveals all the uniqueness of medieval thinking, characterised by this highly categorised approach of the fear of the world. A means of arranging knowledge that is also found in other cultures of the time, notably in the Middle East and the Far East, and which strives to formulate factual descriptions through a symbolic, moralist approach applied in a systematic manner. An understanding shared by everyone, clearly inspired by the Physiologus, a Greek text dating from the 11thcentury found in Alexandria, and founder of many encyclopaedic manuscripts all over the world.

The Aberdeen Bestiary is arranged on a hierarchical basis in 11 chapters: the creation of the world,
wild animals, domestic animals, small animals, birds, snakes and reptiles, worms, fish, trees and plants, human nature and finally, minerals. Today it is preciously kept in the library of the University of Aberdeen in Scotland. This extremely rare object has only been exhibited to the public on one occasion, in 2012, during the inauguration of the new library at the University of Aberdeen. In order to remain preciously preserved from light and damp, it can only be observed for 30 minutes a day.

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